Treatments enhancing appearance include such processes as napping and shearing, brushing, singeing, beetling, decating, tentering, calendering or pressing, moiréing, embossing, creping, glazing, polishing, and optical brightening.
Napping and shearing
Napping is a process that may be applied to woollens, cottons, spun silks, and spun rayons, including both woven and knitted types, to raise a velvety, soft surface. The process involves passing the fabric over revolving cylinders covered with fine wires that lift the short, loose fibres, usually from the weft yarns, to the surface, forming a nap. The process, which increases warmth, is frequently applied to woollens and worsteds and also to blankets.
Shearing cuts the raised nap to a uniform height and is used for the same purpose on pile fabrics. Shearing machines operate much like rotary lawn mowers, and the amount of shearing depends upon the desired height of the nap or pile, with such fabrics as gabardine receiving very close shearing. Shearing may also be applied to create stripes and other patterns by varying surface height.
This process, applied to a wide variety of fabrics, is usually accomplished by bristle-covered rollers. The process is used to remove loose threads and short fibre ends from smooth-surfaced fabrics and is also used to raise a nap on knits and woven fabrics. Brushing is frequently applied to fabrics after shearing, removing the cut fibres that have fallen into the nap.
Also called gassing, singeing is a process applied to both yarns and fabrics to produce an even surface by burning off projecting fibres, yarn ends, and fuzz. This is accomplished by passing the fibre or yarn over a gas flame or heated copper plates at a speed sufficient to burn away the protruding material without scorching or burning the yarn or fabric. Singeing is usually followed by passing the treated material over a wet surface to assure that any smoldering is halted.
Beetling is a process applied to linen fabrics and to cotton fabrics made to resemble linen to produce a hard, flat surface with high lustre and also to make texture less porous. In this process, the fabric, dampened and wound around an iron cylinder, is passed through a machine in which it is pounded with heavy wooden mallets.
Decating is a process applied to woollens and worsteds, man-made and blended fibre fabrics, and various types of knits. It involves the application of heat and pressure to set or develop lustre and softer hand and to even the set and grain of certain fabrics. When applied to double knits it imparts crisp hand and reduces shrinkage. In wet decating, which gives a subtle lustre, or bloom, fabric under tension is steamed by passing it over perforated cylinders.
Tentering, crabbing, and heat-setting
These are final processes applied to set the warp and weft of woven fabrics at right angles to each other, and to stretch and set the fabric to its final dimensions. Tentering stretches width under tension by the use of a tenter frame, consisting of chains fitted with pins or clips to hold the selvages of the fabric, and travelling on tracks. As the fabric passes through the heated chamber, creases and wrinkles are removed, the weave is straightened, and the fabric is dried to its final size. When the process is applied to wet wools it is called crabbing; when applied to synthetic fibres it is sometimes called heat-setting, a term also applied to the permanent setting of pleats, creases, and special surface effects.
Calendering is a final process in which heat and pressure are applied to a fabric by passing it between heated rollers, imparting a flat, glossy, smooth surface. Lustre increases when the degree of heat and pressure is increased. Calendering is applied to fabrics in which a smooth, flat surface is desirable, such as most cottons, many linens and silks, and various man-made fabrics. In such fabrics as velveteen, a flat surface is not desirable, and the cloth is steamed while in tension, without pressing. When applied to wool, the process is called pressing and employs heavy heated metal plates to steam and press the fabric. Calendering is not usually a permanent process.
Moiréing, embossing, glazing and ciréing, and polishing are all variations of the calendering process. Moiré is a wavy or “watered” effect imparted by engraved rollers that press the design into the fabric. The process, applied to cotton, acetate, rayon, and some ribbed synthetic fabrics, is only permanent for acetates and resin-treated rayons. Embossing imparts a raised design that stands out from the background and is achieved by passing the fabric through heated rollers engraved with a design. Although embossing was formerly temporary, processes have now been developed to make this effect permanent.
Glazing imparts a smooth, stiff, highly polished surface to such fabrics as chintz. It is achieved by applying such stiffeners as starch, glue, shellac, or resin to the fabric and then passing it through smooth, hot rollers that generate friction. Resins are now widely employed to impart permanent glaze. Ciré (from the French word for waxed) is a similar process applied to rayons and silks by the application of wax followed by hot calendering, producing a metallic high gloss. Ciré finishes can be achieved without a sizing substance in acetates, which are thermoplastic (e.g., can be softened by heat), by the application of heat.
Polishing, used to impart sheen to cottons without making them as stiff as glazed types, is usually achieved by mercerizing the fabric and then passing it through friction rollers.
A crepe effect may be achieved by finishing. In one method, which is not permanent, the cloth is passed, in the presence of steam, between hot rollers filled with indentations, producing waved and puckered areas. In the more permanent caustic soda method, a caustic soda paste is rolled onto the fabric in a patterned form, or a resist paste may be applied to areas to remain unpuckered, and the entire fabric is then immersed in caustic soda. The treated areas shrink, and the untreated areas pucker. If the pattern is applied in the form of stripes, the effect is called plissé; an allover design produces blister crepe.
Optical brightening, or optical bleaches, are finishes giving the effect of great whiteness and brightness because of the way in which they reflect light. These compounds contain fluorescent colourless dyes, causing more blue light to be reflected. Changes in colour may occur as the fluorescent material loses energy, but new optical whiteners can be applied during the laundering process.