NONINTERLACED FABRICS

With the exception of felt, nonwoven materials are in the early stages of development. There is controversy about the precise meaning of the term nonwoven, but one authority defines nonwoven fabrics as textile fabrics made of a fibrous layer having randomly laid or oriented fibres or threads. Felt Felts are a class of fabrics or […]

NET AND LACE MAKING

The popularity of handmade laces led to the invention of lace-making machines. The early models required intricate engineering mechanisms, and the development of the modern lace industry originated when a machine was designed to produce laces identical with Brussels lace. In the Heathcot, or bobbinet, machine, warp threads were arranged so that the threads moved […]

KNITTED FABRIC

Knitted fabrics are constructed by interlocking a series of loops made from one or more yarns, with each row of loops caught into the preceding row. Loops running lengthwise are called wales, and those running crosswise are courses. Hand knitting probably originated among the nomads of the Arabian Desert about 1000 bce and spread from […]

HEAT TRANSFER PRINTING

The popularity of polyester fabrics led to the development of a completely new form of printing: heat transfer printing, which prints the pattern on paper with carefully selected dyes. The paper is then applied to the fabric by passing the two together through a type of hot calender, and the pattern is transferred from one […]

FINISHES ENCHANCING TACTILE QUALITIES

Finishes enhancing the feel and drape of fabrics involve the addition of sizing, weighting, fulling, and softening agents, which may be either temporary or permanent. Sizing Sizing, or dressing, agents are compounds that form a film around the yarn or individual fibres, increasing weight, crispness, and lustre. Sizing substances, including starches, gelatin, glue, casein, and […]

FINISHES ENCHANCING APPEARANCE

Treatments enhancing appearance include such processes as napping and shearing, brushing, singeing, beetling, decating, tentering, calendering or pressing, moiréing, embossing, creping, glazing, polishing, and optical brightening. Napping and shearing Napping is a process that may be applied to woollens, cottons, spun silks, and spun rayons, including both woven and knitted types, to raise a velvety, […]

DYEING

Most forms of textile materials can be dyed at almost any stage. Quality woollen goods are frequently dyed in the form of loose fibre, but top dyeing or cheese dyeing is favoured in treating worsteds. Manufacturers prefer piece dyeing, which allows stocking of white goods, reducing the risk of being overstocked with cloth dyed in […]

BLOCK PRINTING

Wooden blocks, carved with a design standing out in relief, are made from solid pieces of wood or by bonding closely grained woods with cheaper ones. When designs include large areas, these are recessed and the space filled with hard wool felt. Fine lines are usually built up with copper strips, and other effects are […]

Cotton

Cotton is a soft, fluffy staple fiber that grows in a boll, or protective case, around the seeds of the cotton plants of the genus Gossypium in the mallow family Malvaceae. The fiber is almost pure cellulose. Under natural conditions, the cotton bolls will increase the dispersal of the seeds. The plant is a shrub […]

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